History of Ibiza
There have been rocky formations on the island for 223 million years, before the Mediterranean Sea came into existence. At that time there was another sea that what much larger than the present one, and it covered part of what form the Balearic Isles today, known as "Masajeas" Sea. When the plaques of Europe and Africa came closer together, 65 million years ago, the Betic Mountain Range was created. Ibiza forms part of this mountain range.
The last phase of folds took place about 15 million years ago, which is when the Pitiusa Islands were created. In Ibiza there are sediments from the Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary periods.
The first colonists arrived in the Stone Age, 8000 years ago. The Can Sargent monument (situated between the coast and the airport) dates back to these times.
The History of Ibiza commenced 1600 years before Christ, when rudimentary villages were built, based on large stone circles, such as those on the sides of Cap d' es Llibrell in Santa Eulalia. However there were no chronological reports until 654 when Carthage founded Ebusus (Ibiza), and it was Diodoro Sículo who made the first reference to Pitiusa Island, named after the great number of pinetrees that grew there. Under the Phoenicians the culture and the economy prospered. The largest Punic Museum in the world, Museo Puig des Molins, is found on Ibiza. The site was built for salt production and probably for the San Carlos lead mines.
The Carthaginians on Ibiza arrived from Phoenicia. They were excellent traders. The following sites date back to this period: Puig d'es Molins in the city of Ibiza , Ca'n Sora in San José and Es Curieram in San Vicente. The latter is a temple to the goddess TANIT.
Later, after the Romans took control, the city of Ibiza was named Confederated City. The remains of this civilisation can be seen in the S'argamasa aqueduct in Santa Eulalia and the statues that used to be situated by the entrance gate to D'alt Vila but have recently been moved to the Archeology Museum.
The next five centuries were ruled by the Barbarians and the Byzantines. Santa Inés church with its catacombs date back to this period.
The Arabs arrived in 711, and remains from this period can be seen in the wall along San José street in D'alt Vila and its turrets. The Arabs were defeated by Carlomagno in 787. The Mauritanians arrived in 832 and in 859 there were battles against the Vikings.
However, the key date for Ibiza is 8th August 1235, when the Catalonian conquest took place. A small chapel can be admired in San Ciriaco street, where it is upheld that the first Catalonian soldier set foot.